Oracle 11g for linux X86的SILENT安装

  Oracle 11.1.0.6 for linux X86 64的SILENT安装
  首先是检查系统硬件情况:
  代码:
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
  MemTotal: 8178836 kB
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
  SwapTotal: 8385888 kB
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# free
  total used free shared buffers cached
  Mem: 8178836 5297744 2881092 0 122512 4773424
  -/+ buffers/cache: 401808 7777028
  Swap: 8385888 0 8385888
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# df -k /dev/shm
  Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
  tmpfs 4089416 0 4089416 0% /dev/shm
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# df -k /tmp
  Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
  /dev/sda7 10153988 428132 9201740 5% /
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# df -k /data
  Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
  /dev/sda9 207275064 3933228 192642952 3% /data
  要求内存不小于1G,在内存小于2G,SWAP应该是内存的1.5倍,内存2到8G,
  SWAP和内存相同大小即可,内存超过8G,SWAP是内存的0.75倍。
  由于11g对于共享内存要求变大,因此系统共享内存应该大于512*进程数,
  如果共享内存不足的话,会造成ORA-845或ORA-1078错误。
  要求临时表空间不少于200M,安装目录应大于4G。
  下面检查系统软件情况:
  代码:
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# cat /proc/version
  Linux version 2.6.18-8.el5 (mockbuild@ca-build14)
  (gcc version 4.1.1 20070105 (Red Hat 4.1.1-52)) #1
  SMP Tue Jun 5 23:25:19 EDT 2007
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# uname -a
  Linux enterprice64 2.6.18-8.el5 #1 SMP Tue Jun 5
  23:25:19 EDT 2007 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# more /etc/issue
  Enterprise Linux Enterprise Linux Server release 5 (Carthage)
  Kernel r on an m
  .
  对操作系统要求:
  Asianux 2.0
  Asianux 3.0
  Oracle Enterprise Linux 4.0
  Oracle Enterprise Linux 5.0
  Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0
  Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0
  SUSE Enterprise Linux 10.0
  系统内核为2.6.9(Asianux 2.0、Oracle Enterprise Linux
  4.0、Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4.0),2.6.18
  (Asianux 3.0、Oracle Enterprise Linux 5.0、
  Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.0),或2.6.16.21(SUSE Enterprise Linux 10.0)。
  对于ES4,oracle需要一下包:
  binutils-2.17.50.0.6
  compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
  compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3 (32 bit)
  elfutils-libelf-0.125
  elfutils-libelf-devel-0.125
  gcc-4.1.1
  gcc-c++-4.1.1
  glibc-2.5-12
  glibc-2.5-12 (32 bit)
  glibc-common-2.5
  glibc-devel-2.5
  glibc-devel-2.5-12 (32 bit)
  libaio-0.3.106
  libaio-0.3.106 (32 bit)
  libaio-devel-0.3.106
  libgcc-4.1.1
  libgcc-4.1.1 (32 bit)
  libstdc++-4.1.1
  libstdc++-4.1.1 (32 bit)
  libstdc++-devel 4.1.1
  make-3.81
  sysstat-7.0.0
  通过rpm –qa查询是否所有需要的包都以及安装,如果没有安装的通过
  rpm –ivh命令进行安装。
  检查网络情况:
  代码:
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# cat /etc/nsswitch.conf|grep hosts
  #hosts: db files nisplus nis dns
  hosts: files dns
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# hostname
  enterprice64
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# domainname
  (none)
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# more /etc/hosts
  # Do not remove the following line, or various programs
  # that require network functionality will fail.
  127.0.0.1 enterprice64 localhost.localdomain localhost
  172.25.13.195 enterprice64
  建立Oracle用户和dba组:
  代码:
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# groupadd oinstall
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# groupadd dba
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# groupadd asadmin
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# useradd -g oinstall -G dba,asadmin oracle
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# passwd oracle
  Changing password for user oracle.
  New UNIX password:
  BAD PASSWORD: it is based on a dictionary word
  Retype new UNIX password:
  passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# id nobody
  uid=99(nobody) gid=99(nobody) groups=99(nobody) context=root:system_r:unconfined_t:SystemLow-SystemHigh
  
  建立oinstall、dba和asadmin组。创建好用户后,检查nobody用户是否存在。
  不存在的话,建立该用户。
  检测并修改系统的核心参数,编辑/etc/sysctl.conf文件,添加下面的配置,
  保存后重启系统。注意,如果系统默认的配置比这里给出的值大,不要修改原有配置。
  fs.file-max = 512 * PROCESSES
  kernel.shmall = 2097152
  kernel.shmmax = 2147483648
  kernel.shmmni = 4096
  kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
  net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
  net.core.rmem_default = 4194304
  net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
  net.core.wmem_default = 262144
  net.core.wmem_max = 262144
  配置oracle用户的环境变量和shell限制,编辑/etc/security/limits.conf,添加下面的内容:
  oracle soft nproc 2047
  oracle hard nproc 16384
  oracle soft nofile 1024
  oracle hard nofile 65536
  编辑/etc/pam.d/login文件,添加下面的内容:
  session required /lib/security/pam_limits.so
  session required pam_limits.so
  编辑oracle用户目录下的.bash_rc文件,添加下列环境变量:
  umask 022
  if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
  if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
  ulimit -p 16384
  ulimit -n 65536
  else
  ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536
  fi
  fi
  export TMP=/tmp
  export TMPDIR=/tmp
  export ORACLE_BASE=/data/oracle
  export ORACLE_SID=ora11g64
  export ORACLE_HOME=/data/oracle/product/11.1
  最后建立安装Oracle所需的目录结构。
  代码:
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# mkdir -p /data/oracle/product/11.1
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# chown -R oracle.oinstall /data
  准备工作做完了下面开始进行Silent方式的安装。
  首先设置oraInst.loc文件:
  代码:
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# ls -l /etc/oraInst.loc
  -rw-rw-r-- 1 oracle dba 61 Oct 19 17:25 /etc/oraInst.loc
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# more /etc/oraInst.loc
  inventory_loc=/data/oracle/oraInventory
  inst_group=oinstall
  确保/etc/oraInst.loc中包含上面的信息,且Oracle包含访问权限。
  根据希望安装的数据库类型选择Silent的response_file文件的类似,
  比如:enterprise.rsp、standard.rsp还是custom.rsp。
  这里选择enterpise.rsp类型,
  安装盘中的database/response目录下对应的response文件拷贝出来,
  根据文件里面的提示对输入值进行修改。
  比如这个例子中对如下的参数进行设置:
  UNIX_GROUP_NAME="oinstall"
  FROM_LOCATION="/data/database/stage/products.xml"
  ORACLE_BASE="/data/oracle"
  ORACLE_HOME="/data/oracle/product/11.1"
  ORACLE_HOME_NAME="ORADBHOME11"
  SHOW_ROOTSH_CONFIRMATION=false
  RESTART_SYSTEM=false
  RESTART_REMOTE_SYSTEM=false
  COMPONENT_LANGUAGES={"zh_CN"}
  s_nameForDBAGrp="dba"
  s_nameForOPERGrp="oinstall"
  s_nameForASMGrp="asadmin"
  n_configurationOption=3
  s_ASMSYSPassword="asm"
  s_ASMSYSPasswordAgain="asm"
  注意,所有的字符串需要放在双引号中,注意大小写。数字和布尔变量直接写就可以。
  由于这里没有选择建立数据库而只安装软件,因此没有设置数据库相关的配置参数。
  代码:
  [oracle@enterprice64 data]$ chmod 700 enterprise.rsp
  下面可以开始SILENT安装了:
  注意,响应文件需要使用绝对路径。
  代码:
  [oracle@enterprice64 database]$ ./runInstaller -silent -noconfig -responseFile /data/database/enterprise.rsp
  Starting Oracle Universal Installer...
  Checking Temp space: must be greater than 120 MB.
  Actual 8886 MB Passed
  Checking swap space: must be greater than 150 MB.
  Actual 8189 MB Passed
  Preparing to launch Oracle Universal
  Installer from /tmp/OraInstall2007-10-19_06-40-04PM.
  Please wait ...[oracle@enterprice64 database]$
  Oracle Universal Installer, Version 11.1.0.6.0 Production
  Copyright (C) 1999, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.
  You can find the log of this install session at:
  /data/oracle/oraInventory/logs/installActions2007-10-19_06-40-04PM.log
  ............................................................ 100% Done.
  Loading Product Information
  ..........................................................100% Done.
  Starting execution of Prerequisites...
  Total No of checks: 14
  Performing check for CertifiedVersions
  Checking operating system requirements ...
  Expected result: One of enterprise-4,enterprise-5,redhat-4,
  redhat-5,SuSE-10,asianux-2,asianux-3
  Actual Result: enterprise-5
  Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed
  Check complete: Passed
  ========================================================
  Performing check for Packages
  Checking operating system package requirements ...
  Checking for make-3.81; found make-1:3.81-1.1-x86_64. Passed
  Checking for binutils-2.17.50.0.6;
  found binutils-2.17.50.0.6-2.el5-x86_64. Passed
  Checking for gcc-4.1.1; found gcc-4.1.1-52.el5-x86_64. Passed
  .
  .
  .
  Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed
  Check complete: Passed
  ========================================================
  Performing check for Kernel
  Checking kernel parameters
  Checking for semmsl=250; found semmsl=250. Passed
  .
  .
  .
  Checking for wmem_max=262144; found wmem_max=262144. Passed
  Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed
  Check complete: Passed
  ========================================================
  Performing check for GLIBC
  Checking Recommended glibc version
  Expected result: ATLEAST=2.5-12
  Actual Result: 2.5-12
  Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed
  Check complete: Passed
  ========================================================
  Performing check for TotalMemory
  Checking physical memory requirements ...
  Expected result: 922MB
  Actual Result: 7984MB
  Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed
  Check complete: Passed
  ========================================================
  Performing check for SwapSpace
  Checking available swap space requirements ...
  Expected result: 7984MB
  Actual Result: 8189MB
  Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed
  Check complete: Passed
  ========================================================
  Performing check for DetectIfDHCPAssignedIP
  Checking Network Configuration requirements ...
  Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Not executed <<<<
  Check complete: Not executed <<<<
  Recommendation: Oracle supports installations on systems with
  DHCP-assigned public IP addresses. However, the primary
  network interface on the system should be configured with
  a static IP address in order for the Oracle Software to
  function properly. See the Installation Guide for more
  details on installing the software on systems configured with DHCP.
  ========================================================
  Performing check for CheckPathForOtherOracleHomes
  Checking PATH environment variable...
  Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed
  Check complete: Passed
  ========================================================
  Performing check for CheckTempDiskSpace
  Checking for sufficient diskspace in TEMP location...
  Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed
  Check complete: Passed
  ========================================================
  Performing check for CheckLdLibraryPath
  Checking LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable...
  Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed
  Check complete: Passed
  ========================================================
  Performing check for OracleBase
  Validating ORACLE_BASE location (if set) ...
  Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed
  Check complete: Passed
  ========================================================
  Performing check for OracleHomeSpace
  Checking Oracle Home path for spaces...
  Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed
  Check complete: Passed
  ========================================================
  Performing check for DetectAnyInvalidASMHome
  Checking for proper system clean-up....
  Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed
  Check complete: Passed
  ========================================================
  Performing check for CompatibilityChecks_DB
  Checking for Oracle Home incompatibilities ....
  Actual Result: NEW_HOME
  Check complete. The overall result of this check is: Passed
  Check complete: Passed
  ========================================================
  PrereqChecks complete
  Analyzing dependencies
  .....................................................100% Done.
  --------------------------------------------------------------
  Summary
  Global Settings
  Source: /data/database/stage/products.xml
  Oracle Base: /data/oracle
  Oracle Home: /data/oracle/product/11.1 (ORADBHOME11)
  Installation Type: Enterprise Edition
  Product Languages
  Simplified Chinese
  English
  Space Requirements
  / Required 226MB (only as temporary space) : Available 8.56GB
  /data/ Required 3.63GB : Available 181.86GB
  New Installations (126 products)
  Oracle Database 11g 11.1.0.6.0
  Enterprise Edition Options 11.1.0.6.0
  Oracle Partitioning 11.1.0.6.0
  .
  .
  .
  Oracle Universal Installer 11.1.0.6.0
  Oracle One-Off Patch Installer 11.1.0.6.0
  Installer SDK Component 11.1.0.6.0
  Sun JDK 1.5.0.11.0
  ----------------------------------------------------------
  Installation in progress (Fri Oct 19 18:40:20 CST 2007)
  ............................................................... 6% Done.
  ............................................................... 12% Done.
  ............................................................... 19% Done.
  ............................................................... 25% Done.
  ............................................................... 31% Done.
  ............................................................... 38% Done.
  ............................................................... 44% Done.
  ............................................................... 50% Done.
  ............................................................... 57% Done.
  ............................................................... 63% Done.
  ............................................................... 69% Done.
  ............................................................... 76% Done.
  ................................................. 81% Done.
  Install successful
  Linking in progress (Fri Oct 19 18:42:27 CST 2007)
  .. 81% Done.
  Link successful
  Setup in progress (Fri Oct 19 18:43:33 CST 2007)
  ................................... 100% Done.
  Setup successful
  End of install phases.(Fri Oct 19 18:43:36 CST 2007)
  WARNING:
  The following configuration scripts need to be executed as the "root" user.
  #!/bin/sh
  #Root script to run
  /data/oracle/product/11.1/root.sh
  To execute the configuration scripts:
  1. Open a terminal window
  2. Log in as "root"
  3. Run the scripts
  The installation of Oracle Database 11g was successful.
  Please check '/data/oracle/oraInventory/logs/
  silentInstall2007-10-19_06-40-04PM.log' for more details.
  最后使用root执行一下$ORACLE_HOME/root.sh脚本就可以了。
  不过这里Oracle存在一个bug,在root.sh脚本中,自动将OUI_SILENT参数设置为TRUE,
  而后的检查中,如果发现这个值为TRUE,那么这个脚本运行会自动退出了。
  这里需要手工将其修改为FALSE,然后使用root执行:
  代码:
  [root@enterprice64 11.1]# ./root.sh
  Running Oracle 11g root.sh script...
  The following environment variables are set as:
  ORACLE_OWNER= oracle
  ORACLE_HOME= /data/oracle/product/11.1
  Enter the full pathname of the local bin directory: [/usr/local/bin]:
  The file "dbhome" already exists in /usr/local/bin. Overwrite it? (y/n)
  [n]: y
  Copying dbhome to /usr/local/bin ...
  The file "oraenv" already exists in /usr/local/bin. Overwrite it? (y/n)
  [n]: y
  Copying oraenv to /usr/local/bin ...
  The file "coraenv" already exists in /usr/local/bin. Overwrite it? (y/n)
  [n]: y
  Copying coraenv to /usr/local/bin ...
  Entries will be added to the /etc/oratab file as needed by
  Database Configuration Assistant when a database is created
  Finished running generic part of root.sh script.
  Now product-specific root actions will be performed.
  Finished product-specific root actions.
  
  对于root.sh的执行不要使用. root.sh的方式,这种方式可能造成脚本陷入死循环。
  至此,数据库软件的安装已经完成,如果系统启动了SELINUX,那么这里还需要处理一个bug:
  利用root改变SELINUX的设置:
  代码:
  [root@enterprice64 ~]# setenforce 0
  至此,Oracle软件已经安装完毕:
  代码:
  [oracle@enterprice64 ~]$ sqlplus "/ as sysdba"
  SQL*Plus: Release 11.1.0.6.0 - Production on Mon Oct 22 14:07:28 2007
  Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.
  Connected to an idle instance.
  SQL>
  上面介绍了如何在SILENT方式下安装11.1.0.6:http://yangtingkun.itpub.net/post/468/407375
  这篇继续介绍SILENT模式下的数据库建立过程。
  通过SILENT模式安装数据库之后,下面继续使用SILENT模式进行数据库的建立,仍然是拷贝安装目录下的/database/reponse/dbca.rsp到安装目录,并进行编译,根据数据库建立方式的不同编辑不同的数据库库选项。
  比如在本次安装过程中设置了下列参数:
  RESPONSEFILE_VERSION = "11.1.0"
  OPERATION_TYPE = "createDatabase"
  GDBNAME = "ora11g64.us.oracle.com"
  SID = "ora11g64"
  TEMPLATENAME = "New_Database.dbt"
  SYSPASSWORD = "test"
  SYSTEMPASSWORD = "test"
  SYSMANPASSWORD = "test"
  DBSNMPPASSWORD = "test"
  DATAFILEDESTINATION ="/data/oracle/oradata/ora11g64"
  RECOVERYAREADESTINATION="/data/oracle/flash_recovery_area"
  CHARACTERSET = "ZHS16GBK"
  TOTALMEMORY = "6000"
  TEMPLATENAME = "ora11g64"
  GDBNAME = "ora11g64.us.oracle.com"
  SCRIPTDESTINATION ="/data/oracle/admin/ora11g64/scripts"
  其中最后三项不是必须的,这个的目的是在建立数据库的同时生成脚本。
  下面就可以开始SILENT模式的数据库创建了:
  代码:
  [oracle@enterprice64 database]$ dbca -silent -responseFile /data/database/dbca.rsp
  Creating and starting Oracle instance
  1% complete
  3% complete
  Creating database files
  6% complete
  Creating data dictionary views
  7% complete
  8% complete
  9% complete
  10% complete
  11% complete
  12% complete
  14% complete
  16% complete
  17% complete
  18% complete
  Adding Oracle JVM
  23% complete
  28% complete
  33% complete
  35% complete
  Adding Oracle Text
  36% complete
  37% complete
  38% complete
  Adding Oracle XML DB
  40% complete
  41% complete
  42% complete
  45% complete
  Adding Oracle Multimedia
  46% complete
  47% complete
  56% complete
  Adding Oracle OLAP
  57% complete
  58% complete
  59% complete
  Adding Oracle Spatial
  60% complete
  61% complete
  62% complete
  63% complete
  66% complete
  Adding Oracle Ultra Search
  67% complete
  73% complete
  Adding Enterprise Manager Repository
  75% complete
  76% complete
  Adding Oracle Application Express
  80% complete
  83% complete
  Adding Oracle Warehouse Builder
  87% complete
  90% complete
  Completing Database Creation
  91% complete
  92% complete
  93% complete
  94% complete
  97% complete
  100% complete
  Look at the log file "/data/oracle/cfgtoollogs/dbca/ora11g64/ora11g64.log" for further details.
  数据库建立完成:
  代码:
  [oracle@enterprice64 database]$ sqlplus "/ as sysdba"
  SQL*Plus: Release 11.1.0.6.0 - Production on Mon Oct 22 17:28:02 2007
  Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.
  Connected to:
  Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.1.0.6.0 - 64bit Production
  With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
  SQL> select * from v$version;
  BANNER
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.1.0.6.0 - 64bit Production
  PL/SQL Release 11.1.0.6.0 - Production
  CORE 11.1.0.6.0 Production
  TNS for Linux: Version 11.1.0.6.0 - Production
  NLSRTL Version 11.1.0.6.0 - Production
  最后可以利用netca来SILENT方式设置网络部分,同样的方法设置netca.rsp:
  RESPONSEFILE_VERSION="11.1"
  CREATE_TYPE= "CUSTOM"
  SHOW_GUI=false
  LOG_FILE=""/data/oracle/product/11.1/network/tools/log/netca.log""
  INSTALLED_COMPONENTS={"server","net8","javavm"}
  INSTALL_TYPE=""typical""
  LISTENER_NUMBER=1
  LISTENER_NAMES={"LISTENER"}
  LISTENER_PROTOCOLS={"TCP;1521"}
  LISTENER_START=""LISTENER""
  NAMING_METHODS={"TNSNAMES","ONAMES","HOSTNAME"}
  设置的参数包括上面的部分,然后就可以使用netca启动silent配置:
  代码:
  [oracle@enterprice64 database]$ netca /silent /responseFile /data/database/netca.rsp
  Mon Oct 22 18:26:40 CST 2007 Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
  Parsing command line arguments:
  Parameter "silent" = true
  Parameter "responsefile" = /data/database/netca.rsp
  Parameter "log" = /data/oracle/product/11.1/network/tools/log/netca.log
  Done parsing command line arguments.
  Oracle Net Services Configuration:
  Profile configuration complete.
  Listener started at port:1521
  Oracle Net Listener Startup:
  Running Listener Control:
  /data/oracle/product/11.1/bin/lsnrctl start LISTENER
  Listener Control complete.
  Listener started successfully.
  Listener configuration complete.
  Oracle Net Services configuration successful. The exit code is 0
  [oracle@enterprice64 database]$ lsnrctl status
  LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 11.1.0.6.0 - Production on 22-OCT-2007 18:31:20
  Copyright (c) 1991, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.
  Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))
  STATUS of the LISTENER
  ------------------------
  Alias LISTENER
  Version TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 11.1.0.6.0 - Production
  Start Date 22-OCT-2007 18:26:40
  Uptime 0 days 0 hr. 4 min. 39 sec
  Trace Level off
  Security ON: Local OS Authentication
  SNMP OFF
  Listener Parameter File /data/oracle/product/11.1/network/admin/listener.ora
  Listener Log File /data/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/enterprice64/listener/alert/log.xml
  Listening Endpoints Summary...
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=enterprice64)(PORT=1521)))
  Services Summary...
  Service "ora11g64.us.oracle.com" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "ora11g64", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
  Service "ora11g64XDB.us.oracle.com" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "ora11g64", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
  Service "ora11g64_XPT.us.oracle.com" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "ora11g64", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
  The command completed successfully
  至此,SILENT安装方式完成。